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FRANKS, Judith

FRANKS, Judith[1]

Female 844 - 870  (26 years)  Submit Photo / DocumentSubmit Photo / Document

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  • Name FRANKS, Judith 
    Born 844  France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Female 
    _TAG Set Family Search - 2015 
    Died 870 
    Buried Saint-Omer, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Headstones Submit Headstone Photo Submit Headstone Photo 
    Person ID I31589  Joseph Smith Sr and Lucy Mack Smith | Joseph Sr.
    Last Modified 4 Apr 2017 

    Father SIMPLE, King Charles III ,   b. 17 Sep 879, Frankfurt, Hessen, Germany Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 7 Oct 929, Perone, Somme, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 50 years) 
    Mother HERMENTRUDE, Queen France ,   b. 865, Orléans, Loiret, Centre, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Oct 869  (Age 4 years) 
    Family ID F11699  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Father Emperor Charles II ,   b. 13 Jun 823, Frankfort, Hessen, Prussia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Oct 877, Brios, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 54 years) 
    Mother ERMINTRUDE, Queen Orleans ,   b. 27 Sep 830, Orléans, Loiret, Centre, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Oct 869, St. Denis Basilica, Paris, Lli-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 39 years) 
    Married 19 Dec 843  Crépy, Aisne, Picardie, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F11819  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 BAUDOUIN, Count Baldwin I   Additional Information on BAUDOUIN, Count Baldwin I - I31588,   b. 837, Flanders, Nord, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 19 Feb 879, Orleans, Bourgogne, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 42 years) 
    Married 862  Flandre, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Notes 
    • MARRIAGE: Also shown as Married Flandres, Austrasia, France.
    Children 
    +1. FLANDERS, Count Baudouin II   Additional Information on FLANDERS, Count Baudouin II - I31586,   b. 864, Flanders, Nord, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 2 Jan 918  (Age 54 years)
    +2. FLANDERS, Countess Widnille ,   b. 865, Flanders, Nord, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 18 Feb 900  (Age 35 years)
     3. CAMBRAY, Count Rudolf ,   b. Abt 867, Flandre, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 17 Jun 896, Flandre, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 29 years)
    Last Modified 13 Sep 2017 
    Family ID F11697  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 WESSEX, King Æthelwulf ,   b. 23 Aug 806, Wessex, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 13 Jan 858, Stambridge, Essex, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 51 years) 
    Married England Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Last Modified 13 Sep 2017 
    Family ID F16166  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

  • Event Map
    Link to Google MapsBorn - 844 - France Link to Google Earth
    Link to Google MapsMarried - - England Link to Google Earth
     = Link to Google Earth 

  • Notes 
    • BIO: Princess of France, Queen of Wessex, Queen of England, Countess of Flanders.

      ** from http://fmg.ac/Projects/MedLands/CAROLINGIANS.htm#CharlesIIleChauveB
      JUDITH ([844]-after 870). The Genealogica Arnulfi Comitis names (in order) "Iudith et Hildegardim, Hirmintrudim et Gislam" as the four daughters of "Karolus imperator…ex Hyrmentrudi regina", specifying that she married "Balduinus comes"[220]. The Annales Bertiniani record the betrothal in Jul 856 of "Iudith filiam Karli regis" and "Edilvulf rex occidentalium Anglorum" after the latter returned from Rome and their marriage "Kal Oct in Vermaria palatio", during which "Ingmaro Durocortori Remorum episcopo" set a queen's diadem on her head[221]. Her first husband placed her "by his own side on the regal throne", contrary to normal practice in the kingdom of Wessex[222]. The Annales Bertiniani record the marriage of "Iudit reginam" and "Adalboldus filius eius [=Edilvulf regis]" in 858 after the death of her first husband[223]. Asser records that when King Æthelwulf was dead, his son Æthelbald married Judith daughter of Charles king of the Franks "contrary to God's prohibition and the dignity of a Christian, contrary also to the custom of all the pagans…and drew down much infamy upon himself"[224]. The Annals of Winchester[225] state that "by the admonition of St Swithun, Æthelbald repented of his incest and separated from his mother-in-law". The Annales Bertiniani record that Judith returned to her father after the death of her second husband, lived at Senlis "sub tuitione paterna", and from there was abducted by "Balduinum comitem" with the consent of her brother Louis, her father consenting to the marriage the following year[226]. Flodoard names "Balduini comitis et Iudita…Karoli regis filia, Edilvulfo regi Anglorum qui et Edelboldus in matrimonium"[227]. m firstly (Verberie-sur-Oise, near Senlis 1 Oct 856) as his [second/third] wife, ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex, son of ECGBERT King of Wessex & his wife Redburga --- ([795/800]-13 Jan 858, bur Winchester). m secondly (858) ÆTHELBALD King of Wessex, son of ÆTHELWULF King of Wessex & his [second] wife Osburga --- (-20 Dec 860, bur Sherborne). m thirdly (Auxerre 13 Dec 862) BAUDOUIN I Count of Flanders, son of ODACRE [Audacer/Odoscer] Graf van Harlebeek & his wife --- ([837/840]-Arras 879, bur Abbaye de Saint-Bertin near Saint-Omer).

      ** from http://sbaldw.home.mindspring.com/hproject/prov/judit002.htm
      Judith
      Wife of (1) Æthelwulf of Wessex; (2) Æthelbald of Wessex; (3) Baldwin I of Flanders.

      Judith's known history is the history of her three notable marriages. She first married king Æthelwulf of Wessex, many years her senior. When he died, she caused a scandal when she was married her stepson, Æthelwulf's son Æthelbald. After his death, she sold her English lands and returned to her father's custody, but soon afterward caused another scandal by eloping with Baldwin of Flanders. For a detailed discussion of Judith's marriage to Baldwin and her children of that marriage, see the page of Baldwin I. [Sproemburg (1936) is the most detailed account of Judith.]

      Date of Birth: say 844.
      Place of Birth: Unknown.

      Date of Death: after 870.
      Place of Death: Unknown.

      Father: Charles the Bald, d. 6 October 877, king of the West Franks, Emperor.
      Mother: Ermentrude, d. 6 October 869, daughter of Eudes, count of Orleans.

      Spouses:

      (1) m., at Verberie, near Senlis, 1 October 856, Æthelwulf, d. 858, king of Wessex.
      ["Edilvulf rex occidentalium Anglorum Roma rediens, Iudith, filiam Karli regis, menso Iulio desponsatam, Kalendis Octobribus in Vermaria palatio in matrimonium accipit, ..." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 856, 47; "Æthelwulfus ... Quo peracto, ad patriam suam remeavit, adferens secum Iuthittam, Karoli, Francorum regis, filiam." Asser, c. 11 (p. 9)]

      (2) m. 858, Æthelbald, d. 860, king of Wessex, son of her first husband Æthelwulf.
      ["Edilvulf rex occidentalium Saxonum, moritur; relictam eius, Iudit reginam, Adalboldus, filius eius, uxorem ducit." Ann. Bertin., s.a. 858, 49; "Defuncto autem Æthelwulfo rege , Æthelbald, filius eius, contra Die interdictum et Christianorum dignitatem, necnon et contra omnium paganorum consuetudinem, thorum patris sui ascendens, Iuthittam, Karoli, Francorum regis, filiam, cum magna ab omnibus audientibus infamia, in matrimonium duxit, effrenisque duobus et dimidio annis Occidentalium Saxonum post patrem regni gubernacula rexit." Asser, c. 17 (p. 16)]

      (3) m. 863, Baldwin I, d. 879, count of Flanders.

      ** from Alfred the Great (Eleanor S. Duckett) p 35--
      ...In these circumstances it was natural that Charles the Bald, king of France, should be glad to ally himself firmly with the king of Wessex in England and that both rulers should be united in facing the common threatening of pirate raids. Accordingly it was announced in July that Ethelwulf was to marry the daughter of Charles the Bald, Judith by name. No reason other than that of political expediency is suggested for this union of a devout king, a ruler now for seventeen years and the father of six children, with a young girl, little more than a child. The nuptials were solemly celebrated on the first of October, 856, in the royal castle at Verberie-sur-Oise, near the Forest of Compiegne...

      It was Hincmar who not only blessed young Judith as a wedded wife but anointed and crowned her as a queen, in her own dignity as a consort of King Ethelwulf of Wessex--a crowning at that time not of tradition or of usage for a king's consort even in Judith's own Frnace. We still have in its original wording the Latin ritual chanted over her at Verberie by the archbishop:

      The Lord crown thee with glory and honour and place upon thy head the precious stones of the Spirit; that whatsoever is here of token in the sheen of gold and the varied sparkling of jewels, may ever shine forth in thee and in thy doings; Which thing may He Himself vouchsafe to grant, to Whom is honour and glory for all ages to come, Amen.

      Bless, O Lord, this Thy servant: Thou Who from all time dost rule the realms of Kings. Amen.

      The marriage was to bear unwelcome harvest. When Ethelwulf at last, in 856, after a year's absence returned home to Wessex, many men of his land received him with joy. His nobles were surprised to see Judith, crowned in France, sitting at his side as queen, contrary to Wessex custom.

      Ethelwulf died in 858. Ethelbald, Alfred's eldest surviving brother, was now ruler of Wessex in full right. The king took as wife his, and Alfred's, own stepmother, the young widow, Judith, even now only fifteen years of age. All men in England, we are told, were horrified.

      The marriage lasted only two years or a little more. In 860 Ethelbald died... Judith, twice a widow at eighteen, sold all her possessions in England and returned to France, where her father kept her under close guard in his castle at Senlis, hoping that she might soon be decently and honorably settled in marriage. Judith was finding consolation for her long dull hours at Senlis in visits from the handsome and energetic Baldwin "Iron-Arm," destined to be the first count of Flanders. Her brother, Louis the Stammerer, secretly gave her aid; and soon all of France was scandalized by the news that Baldwin and this princess and former queen had eloped.

      ** from Wikipedia listing for Judith of Flanders, as of 10/14/2014
      Judith of Flanders (or Judith of France) (c. 843 – c. 870)[1] was the eldest daughter of the West Frankish King and later Holy Roman Emperor Charles the Bald and his wife Ermentrude of Orléans. Through her marriages to two Kings of Wessex, Æthelwulf and Æthelbald, she was twice a queen. Her first two marriages were childless, but through her third marriage to Baldwin, she became the first Countess of Flanders and an ancestress of later Counts of Flanders. One of her sons by Baldwin married Ælfthryth, a daughter of Æthelbald's brother, Alfred the Great. She was also an ancestress of Matilda of Flanders, the consort of William the Conqueror, and thus of later monarchs of England.

      Queen of Wessex
      In 855 King Æthelwulf of Wessex made a pilgrimage to Rome, and on his way back in 856 he stayed at the court of the West Frankish king, Charles the Bald. In July Æthelwulf became engaged to Charles's daughter, Judith, who was no more than fourteen, while Æthelwulf was about fifty years old, and on 1 October 856 they were married at Verberie in northern France. The marriage was a diplomatic alliance. Both men were suffering from Viking attacks, and for Æthelwulf the marriage had the advantage of associating him with Carolingian prestige. In Wessex it was not customary for kings' wives to be queens, but Charles insisted that his daughter be crowned queen.[2][3]

      The marriage provoked a rebellion by Æthelwulf's eldest surviving son, Æthelbald, probably because he feared displacement by a higher born half brother. However father and son negotiated a compromise under which Æthelwulf received the eastern districts of the kingdom and Æthelbald the western. It is not known whether this meant that Æthelwulf took Kent and Æthelbald Wessex, or whether Wessex itself was divided.[2]

      Judith had no children by Æthelwulf, who died on 13 January 858. He was succeeded by Æthelbald, who married Judith, his step-mother, probably to enhance his status because she was the daughter of the West Frankish king.[2] The marriage was condemned by Asser in his Life of Alfred the Great:

      Once King Æthelwulf was dead, Æthelbald, his son, against God's prohibition and Christian dignity, and also contrary to the practice of all pagans, took over his father's marriage-bed and married Judith, daughter of Charles, king of the Franks, incurring great disgrace from all who heard of it.[4]

      Judith was still childless when Æthelbald died in 860 after a reign of two and a half years.[4]

      Elopement with Baldwin of Flanders
      Following Æthelbald's death, Judith sold her properties in Wessex and returned to France. According to the Chronicle of St. Bertin, her father sent her to the Monastery at Senlis, where she would remain "under his protection and royal episcopal guardianship, with all the honour due to a queen, until such time as, if she could not remain chaste, she might marry in the way the apostle said, that is suitably and legally."[5] Presumably, Charles may have intended to arrange another marriage for his daughter. However, around Christmas 861, Judith eloped with Baldwin, later Count of Flanders. The two were likely married at the monastery of Senlis at this time. The record of the incident in the Annals depicts Judith not as the passive victim of bride theft but as an active agent, eloping at the instigation of Baldwin and apparently with her brother Louis the Stammerer's consent.[6]

      Unsurprisingly, Judith's father was furious and ordered his bishops to excommunicate the couple. They later fled to the court of Judith's cousin Lothair II of Lotharingia for protection, before going to Pope Nicholas I to plead their case. The Pope took diplomatic action and asked Judith's father to accept the union as legally binding and welcome the young couple into his circle – which ultimately he did. The couple then returned to France and were officially married at Auxerre in 863.

      Baldwin was given the land directly south of the Scheldt, i.e.: the Country of Flanders (albeit an area of smaller size than the county which existed in the High Middle Ages) to ward off Viking attacks. Although it is disputed among historians as to whether King Charles did this in the hope that Baldwin would be killed in the ensuing battles with the Vikings, Baldwin managed the situation remarkably well. Baldwin succeeded in quelling the Viking threat, expanded both his army and his territory quickly, and became a faithful supporter of King Charles. The March of Baldwin came to be known as the County of Flanders and would come to be one of the most powerful principalities of France. Judith was still living in 870.

      Children
      By her third husband, Baldwin I of Flanders, Judith's children included:

      Charles (born after 863 – died young) – ostensibly named for Judith's father, Charles the Bald
      Baldwin II – (c. 864/866 – 918). Succeeded his father as Count of Flanders. Married Ælfthryth, daughter of Alfred the Great
      Raoul (Rodulf) – (c. 869 – 896). Became Count of Cambrai around 888, and was killed by Herbert I of Vermandois in 896

      Notes
      Judith's date of birth is uncertain. Janet Nelson in her Online DNB article on Æthelwulf dates it after 843, but the entry for Judith in A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain states that she was around fourteen when she married Æthelwulf in 856. It is also not known when she died. Nelson gives the date as c. 870, but also says that if she was alive in the 890s she may have arranged her son Baldwin's marriage to a daughter of Alfred the Great.
      Janet L. Nelson, Æthelwulf, Oxford Online Dictionary of National Biography, 2004
      Williams et al., A Biographical Dictionary of Dark Age Britain
      Simon Keynes and Michael Lapidge eds., Alfred the Great: Asser's Life and Other Contemporary Sources, Penguin 1983 (2004 reprint), p. 73
      Geary, Patrick J. Women at the Beginning: Origin Myths from the Amazons to the Virgin Mary. (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006),p. 52
      Geary, op. cit., p. 53

      References and further reading
      Entry on Judith in "Women at the Beginning" by Patrick J. Geary on Google Books
      Women in England in the Middle Ages By Jennifer C. Ward on Google Books

  • Sources 
    1. [S677] Ancestral File (TM), The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, (July 1996 (c), data as of 2 January 1996).